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The noninvasive estimation of L FP with Doppler echocardiography is necessarily multiparametric, it requires in-depth knowledge of LA and LV pathophysiology, an adequate learning curve and continuous updating from clinical research results. The use of single equations aimed at calculating an absolute mean LA pressure value is hampered by poor reproducibility in unselected patient populations. It is preferable to use categorical or semi-quantitative flow-charts or algorithms, such as those suggested by the current Guidelines. Noninvasive estimation of LV FP is particularly accurate in the follow-up of the individual patient.


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