2D video clip. Apical 5-chamber view, obtained by tilting the transducer cranially until the aortic cusps are visualized. Anatomy and function of the aortic valve.
CD video clip. Apical 5-chamber view, aortic valve flow. Locate and maximise regurgitant jet location / direction, and evidence of valve stenosis (aliasing).
Identification of a Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area (PISA) if regurgitation is present.
Pulsed Doppler still frame. Left ventricular outflow. Measurement of the outflow tract time-velocity integral, which is used by itself to “eyeball” left ventricular stroke volume, or together with the calculated area of the aortic annulus to calculate (forward) stroke volume (see Normal values here). See the Online Calculator here, and “How to calculate ventricular stroke volume using pulsed Doppler” in this website. Combined with mitral valve stroke volume, this measurement is used to estimate Regurgitant Volume and EROA of aortic or mitral regurgitation.
Continuous wave Doppler. Aortic valve flow. Measurement of peak systolic velocity and the time-velocity integral. These measurements are used in the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis. See the Online Calculator here.