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Figures 13 to 15 show 3 examples of calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output in a normal subject (Figure 13, bradycardia with increased stroke volume), in a patient with cirrhosis (Figure 14, tachycardia with preserved cardiac output), and in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (Figure 15, reduced cardiac output).

Figure 13 A
Figure 14 A
Figure 15 A
Figure 13B. Calculation of stroke volume normal subject
Figure 13 B
Figure 14B. Calculation of stroke volume in patient with cirrhosis
Figure 14 B
Figure 15B. Calculation of stroke volume in patient with dilated cardiomyopathy
Figure 15 B

CO: cardiac output; EDV: end-diastolic volume; HR”: heart rate; LVOT: LV outflow tract; SV: stroke volume; VTI: pulsed Doppler flow velocity-time integral .

Although stroke volume can also be calculated with 2D-derived LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (see Page 1 of this lesson), this latter estimation is far less accurate than the pulsed Doppler estimation (personal data from the Author).