Other findings associated with aortic atheromas: kinking of the descending aorta (Figure 10) and spontaneous echo-contrast (Figure 11), a sign associated with low cardiac output / atrial fibrillation.
Examples of Grade IV extended complicated plaques (Figure 12) and a parietal ulcer (Figure 13). Ulcers are focal crater incisions of the aortic wall. They are present in 39% of patients with stroke of unknown origin. They are associated with intramural hematoma in 10% of cases, and with localized aortic dissection in 30% of cases.