[Page 3]

Figure 10. 2D TE long-axis thoracic descending aorta. Kinking of the vessel
Figure 11. 2D TE short-axis thoracic descending aorta. Spontaneous echo contrast

Other findings associated with aortic atheromas: kinking of the descending aorta (Figure 10) and spontaneous echo-contrast (Figure 11), a sign associated with low cardiac output / atrial fibrillation.

Figure 12. 2D TE long axis thoracic descending aorta. Complex plaques
Figure 13. 2D TE long axis, thoracic descending aorta. Ulcer

Examples of Grade IV extended complicated plaques (Figure 12) and a parietal ulcer (Figure 13). Ulcers are focal crater incisions of the aortic wall. They are present in 39% of patients with stroke of unknown origin. They are associated with intramural hematoma in 10% of cases, and with localized aortic dissection in 30% of cases.