Formulas&Calculations 公式及计算

M-MODEUnitsFormula
LV FS%[(EDD-ESD) / EDD] x 100
LV wall thickening%[(PWTd – PWTs) / PWTd] x 100 (%)
LV h/r [Reichek 1982][(PWTd + IVSTd) /2] / (EDD / 2)
LVMIgm/m2(1.05 x [(EDD+PWTd+IVSTd)3 – EDD3] – 13.6) / BSA
LV ESS (meridional)103 dynes / cm20.98 x (0.334 x SAP x ESD) / [PWTs x (1 + (PWTs / ESD))] – 2
2DUnitsFormula
LV long / short axis ratioLong axis / short axis
LV diastolic sphericity index [Lamas 1989, Kono 1991)EDV / [(LAD3 x π) / 6]
LV mass (area/length)gm1.05 x {[5/6 x A1 x (a+d+t)] – [5/6 x A2 x (a+d)]}
LV mass (truncated ellipsoid) [Schiller 1989]gm1.05 p {(b+t)2 x [2/3 x (a+t)+d – [d3 / 3 x (a+t)2]] – b2 x [2/3 a d – (d3 / 3 x a2)]}
LV SVmlEDV – ESV
LV COmlSV x HR
LV ejection fraction%[(EDV – ESV) / EDV] x 100
LA reservoir filling volumemlLA ESV – LA EDV
RV FAC%[(EDA – ESA) / EDA] x 100
DOPPLER, VALVESUnitsFormula
Simplified BernouillimmHgP1 – P2 = 4 x (V2² – V1 ²)
Pressure to velocity gradientmmHgΔ P = 4 x (V2)²
Continuity equation (1)A1 x VTI1 = A2 x VTI2
Continuity equation (2)cm2A2 = A1 x VTI1 / VTI2
LVOT areacm2{[(LVOT diameter/2)²] x π}
LV SVmlLVOT VTI x LVOT area
LV SV indexml/m2LV SV / BSA
COmlLV SV x HR
CIml/m2CO / BSA
AV RVolmlLV SV – MV SV
AV RF%(AV RVol / LV SV) x 100
AV EROAcm2AV RVol / LVOT VTI
AV area (Continuity equation)cm2LVOT area x LVOT VTI / AV VTI
MA areacm2π x (MADmax / 2) x (MADmin / 2)
PHTmsDT x 0.29
MV area (PHT)cm2220 / PHT
MV area (PISA)cm2PISA area x Va / MV peak velocity
MV area (Continuity equation)cm2LVOT area x LVOT VTI / MV VTI
MV stroke volumemlMV VTIannulus x MA area
MV RVolmlMV SV – LV SV
MV RF%(MV RVol / MV SV) x 100
MV EROAcm2MV RVol / MV VTIannulus
PISAareacm2(r2) x π x 2
PISA peak regurgitant flowml/sPISAarea x Va
PISA peak regurgitant gradientmmHg[(PRvel / 100)²] x 4
PISA EROAcm2PISA peak regurgitant flow / PRvel
PISA RVolmiPISA EROA x regurgitant VTI
PISA RF%(RV / SV) x 100
DOPPLER, HEMODYNAMICSUnitsFormulas
HR60.000 / RR (msec)
Pressure adjusted heart rate(HR x RAPe) / MAP
MAPmmHgDBP + [(SBP – DBP) /3]
Double productSBP x HR
Coronary perfusion pressuremmHgDBP – LAP
LAP (mid-systole)mmHgSBP – [4 x (MR Vp)2]
LVEDP [Choi 2010]mmHg4.9 + (0.62 x E/e’ ratio)
Shock indexHR / SBP
SVml(π / 4) x LVOT VTI x (LVOT diameter)²
SVIml/m2SV / BSA
COml/minSV x HR
CIml/min/m2CO / BSA
Mean systolic ejection rateSVI / LVET
Cardiac power outputW(CO x MAP) / 451
Cardiac power indexW / m2(CI x MAP) / 451
SVRdynes x sec / cm580 x [(MAP – RAP) / CO]
SVR indexdynes x sec / cm5 x m2SVR / BSA
LV stroke workg x min0.0136 x [SV x (MAP – LVEDP)]
LV stroke work indexg x min / m2{0.0136 x [SV x (MAP – LVEDP)]} / BSA
PSPmmHg[(TV PRVel)2 x 4] + RAPe
PDPmmHg[(PRedv)2 x 4] + RAPe
PMPmmHgPDP + [(PSP – PDP) /3]
PVRWU(TV PRVel / RVOT VTI) x 10
PVRdynes x sec x cm-580 x (PMP – PLAP) / CO
AbbreviationsEnglishChinese
ALV semi-major axis from widest minor axis radius (b) to apex
BLV short axis radius
DLV truncated semi-major axis from widest minor axis radius (b) to mitral anulus plane
A1Diastolic SA pericardial LV myocardial area
A2Diastolic SA endocardial LV myocardial area
AVAortic valve
BSABody surface area
CICardiac index
COCardiac output
DBPDiastolic blood pressure
DTDeceleration time
EDAEnd-diastolic area
EDDLV end-diastolic diameter
EDVEnd-diastolic volume
EROAEffective regurgitant orifice area
ESAEnd-systolic area
ESDLV end-systolic diameter
ESSEnd-systolic wall stress
ESVEnd-systolic volume
FACFractional area change
FSFractional shortening
HRHeart rate
h/rHypertrophy index
IVSTdDiastolic interventricular septal index
LALeft atrium
LADLV diastolic long axis
LAPLA pressure
LVLeft ventricle
LVEDPLV end-diastolic pressure
LVETLV ejection time
LVMILV mass index
LVOTLV outflow tract
MAMitral annulus
MADmaxMaximum (intercommissural) MA diameter
MADminMinimum (antero-posterior) MA diameter
MAPMean arterial presure
MRMitral regurgitation
MVMitral valve
PPressure
P1Proximal pressure
P2Distal pressure
PDPPulmonary diastolic pressure
PHTPressure half time
PISAProximal isovelocity surface area
PMPPulmonary mean pressure
PRPulmonary regurgitation
PRVelPeak regurgitant velocity
PSPPulmonary systolic pressure
PRedvPR end-diastolic velocity
PVRPulmonary vascular resistances
PWTdEnd-diastolic LV posterior wall thickness
PWTsEnd-systolic LV posterior wall thickness
rRadius of aliasing vel,ocity (PISA)
RAPRight atrial pressure (hemodynamic)
RAPeEstimated RAP (inferior vena cava collapse)
RFRegurgitant fraction
RRR to R distance on ECG
RVRight ventricle
RVolRegurgitant volume
RVOTRV outflow tract
SAShort axis
SBPSystolic blood pressure
SVStroke volume
SVIStroke volume index
SVRSystemic vascular resistances
tLV myocardial thickness
TVTricuspid valve
V1Proximal velocity
V2Distal velocity
VaAliasing velocity
VpPeak velocity
VTIVelocity-time integral

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